ia: Benvenite! In mi blog io scribe in interlingua, italiano e anglese.

it: Benvenuti! Nel mio blog scrivo in interlingua, italiano e inglese.

en: Welcome! In my blog I write in Interlingua, Italian and English.

Ubuntu Touch porting notes for the Redmi Note 7 Pro, part 2

This is the second part of my porting odyssey; for the first part, follow this link.

The good news is that I've done some progress; the bad news is that there are still plenty of issues, and solving them involves deep diving into nearly all components and technologies that make up the core of an Android device, so completing the porting is going to take quite some time. On the other hand, I'm learning a lot of new stuff, and I might be able to share it by writing some documentation. And, who knows, maybe work on some other device port.

Anyway, enough with the introduction! Let's see what progress I've been doing so far.

The new device tree

While asking for help to debug the audio issue I was facing (more about that later), I was also told that the lavender tree, which I was using as a reference, was obsolete. The new one was in gitlab, and was build with a totally different system, described here.

So, I picked the lavender tree and adapted it for violet: I changed the deviceinfo file to point to my kernel tree, use my kernel configuration, and use the same boot command line as before. By the way, here's my current "new" device tree. The build failed, with errors like:

In function 'memcpy',
    inlined from 'proc_ipc_auto_msgmni.part.1' at /home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/downloads/android_kernel_xiaomi_violet/ipc/ipc_sysctl.c:82:2:
/home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/downloads/android_kernel_xiaomi_violet/include/linux/string.h:340:4: error: call to '__read_overflow2' declared with attribute error: detected read beyond size of object passed as 2nd parameter

I then replayed the kernel build using the old system, and noticed that it was using clang as the compiler; so I changed the related flag in the deviceinfo file, and the build went past that point. It failed later, though:

/home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/downloads/android_kernel_xiaomi_violet/drivers/staging/qcacld-3.0/core/sap/src/sap_fsm.c:1498:26: error: cast to smaller integer type 'eSapStatus' from 'void *' [-Werror,-Wvoid-pointer-to-enum-cast]
                bss_complete->status = (eSapStatus) context;

I ended up editing the Kbuild file in the module source directory, and removed the -Werror from there (as well in another place that failed a bit later). This made the build proceed until the end, where it failed because the device tree file was not found:

+ cp -v /home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/downloads/KERNEL_OBJ/arch/arm64/boot/dts/qcom/sm8150-mtp-overlay.dtbo /home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/tmp/partitions/dtbo.img
cp: cannot stat '/home/mardy/projects/port/xiaomi-violet/bd/downloads/KERNEL_OBJ/arch/arm64/boot/dts/qcom/sm8150-mtp-overlay.dtbo': No such file or directory

I quickly realized that this was due to an error of mine: the Xiaomi violet is a sm6150, not a sm8150 as mentioned in my deviceinfo file! But what overlay file should I use then, since there isn't a sm6150-mtp-overlay.dts in my source tree? Having a loot at other deviceinfo files, I saw that the deviceinfo_kernel_dtb_overlay line is not always there, so I tried commenting it out, and it helped.

The next step was getting flashable images, of course. While the device is not supported by the UBports system-image server, we can use use some scripts to create a fake OTA (Over The Air update) and generate flashable images starting from it. The steps can be read in the devel-flashable target of the .gitlab-ci.yml file (if this step is not present, we should try to find another device repository which has it. They are the following:

./build/prepare-fake-ota.sh out/device_violet.tar.xz ota
./build/system-image-from-ota.sh ota/ubuntu_command out

Once these commands have completed their execution, these commands will push the images to the device:

fastboot flash boot out/boot.img; fastboot flash system out/system.img

There's also fastboot flash recovery out/recovery.img, but I left it out since I was not interested in the recovery image at this stage. And unless you are ready to submit your port for inclusion into the "supported devices" list, I'd recommend not flashing the UT recovery image since TWRP is more powerful and will likely help you in recover your device from a broken image.

Kernel command line

It's important that the kernel command line contains the systempart parameter. In my case, the first boot failed because the command line was longer than 512 bytes, and this parameter was getting truncated. So one thing to be careful about is the length of the kernel command line.

This was fixed by removing some unnecessary kernel parameters from the deviceinfo file.

Missing thumbnails in the Gallery app, content-hub not working

Another issue I noticed is that photo thumbnails were all black in the Gallery app, and the content-hub also was not working. I noticed a relevant commit in the lavender kernel tree and found a launchpad bug which mentioned the issues I was seeing. In the Telegram channel I was told that patch is a forward port of a commit from kernel 3.4 that was present in all of the cores devices, and that it was indeed needed to have the ContentHub working.

The patch did not apply cleanly on top of my kernel tree, but luckily it was just an offset issue: adjusting the patch was easy, and indeed after applying it thumbnails started appearing in the Gallery and Imaginario could import photos again via the ContentHub.

Time and date

Time was always reset to a far away date after a reboot. This is a common issue on Qualcomm devices, and can be fixed by disabling the time service in the Android container.


For some reason, at a certain point my override stopped working (or, more likely, the override never worked, but I happened to have fixed the issue directly modifying the vendor init file). I had to copy /android/vendor/etc/init/hw/init.qcom.rc into /usr/share/halium-overrides/, modify it and bind mount the modified file in order to get it working.

This actually seems to match my understanding of the Android init documentation, because according to the path priorities a configuration file stored under /system/ will never be able to override one stored under /vendor.

Fixing the audio configuration

Audio was not working at all. The sound indicator icon was not shown, only the raw (unstranslated) "indicator-sound" text was shown in the panel. pulseaudio was not running. Trying to run it manually (as the phablet user, since pulseaudio is run in the user session) led to this:

phablet@ubuntu-phablet:~$ pulseaudio -n -vvv -F /etc/pulse/touch-android9.pa
I: [pulseaudio] main.c: setrlimit(RLIMIT_NICE, (31, 31)) failed: Operation not permitted
I: [pulseaudio] main.c: setrlimit(RLIMIT_RTPRIO, (9, 9)) failed: Operation not permitted
D: [pulseaudio] cli-command.c: Parsing script '/etc/pulse/touch-android9.pa'
D: [pulseaudio] database-tdb.c: Opened TDB database '/home/phablet/.config/pulse/ubuntu-phablet-stream-volumes.tdb'
I: [pulseaudio] module-stream-restore.c: Successfully opened database file '/home/phablet/.config/pulse/ubuntu-phablet-stream-volumes'.
D: [pulseaudio] module.c: Checking for existence of '/usr/lib/pulse-8.0/modules/module-droid-card-28.so': success
I: [pulseaudio] module-droid-card.c: Create new droid-card
D: [pulseaudio] droid-util.c: No configuration provided for opening module with id primary
I: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: Failed to open file (/odm/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml): No such file or directory
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /odm/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml
D: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: Read /vendor/etc/audio/audio_policy_configuration.xml ...
D: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: New module: "primary"
W: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: [/vendor/etc/audio/audio_policy_configuration.xml:78] Could not find element attribute "samplingRates"
E: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: [/vendor/etc/audio/audio_policy_configuration.xml:78] Failed to parse element <profile>
E: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: parsing aborted at line 78
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /vendor/etc/audio/audio_policy_configuration.xml
D: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: Read /vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml ...
D: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: New module: "primary"
W: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: [/vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml:78] Could not find element attribute "samplingRates"
E: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: [/vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml:78] Failed to parse element <profile>
E: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: parsing aborted at line 78
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml
I: [pulseaudio] config-parser-legacy.c: Failed to open config file (/vendor/etc/audio_policy.conf): No such file or directory
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /vendor/etc/audio_policy.conf
I: [pulseaudio] config-parser-xml.c: Failed to open file (/system/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml): No such file or directory
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /system/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml
I: [pulseaudio] config-parser-legacy.c: Failed to open config file (/system/etc/audio_policy.conf): No such file or directory
D: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse configuration from /system/etc/audio_policy.conf
E: [pulseaudio] droid-config.c: Failed to parse any configuration.

Indeed, line 78 of /vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml had an error, where a property was spelt like simplingRate instead of samplingRate. However, the "vendor" partition is read-only, so I couldn't change that file directly. Another option could have been creating a fixed copy of the file and place it with /system/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml, but the "system" is also read-only (there are ways to modify these partitions, of course, but I couldn't find a clean way to do it from the device tree scripts. So I went for the bind-mount approach: I would ship the fixed file in some other directory of the file-system, and then modify the /etc/init/mount-android.conf file (this is the job that upstart executes before starting the Android LXC container) to bind-mount the file onto /vendor/etc/audio_policy_configuration.xml.

This worked, but my joy was short-lived: audio was coming up only once every 5 boots or so. I will not list here all the things I tried, as they were plenty of them; and more than once I went to sleep happy and convinced of having fixed the issue for good, until the next day the device booted without audio. It was clearly a timing issue occurring in the early boot, because one thing I clearly noticed very early on is that in those cases when the audio was booting, the following lines appeared in the kernel log:

[    7.130057] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: msm_cdc_dt_parse_vreg_info: cdc-vdd-ldo-rxtx: vol=[1800000 1800000]uV, curr=[25000]uA, ond 0
[    7.130068] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: msm_cdc_dt_parse_vreg_info: cdc-vddpx-1: vol=[1800000 1800000]uV, curr=[10000]uA, ond 0
[    7.130076] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: msm_cdc_dt_parse_vreg_info: cdc-vdd-mic-bias: vol=[3296000 3296000]uV, curr=[25000]uA, ond 0
[    7.130084] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: msm_cdc_dt_parse_vreg_info: cdc-vdd-buck: vol=[1800000 1800000]uV, curr=[650000]uA, ond 1
[    7.137759] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: bound wcd937x-slave.1170224 (ops cleanup_module [wcd937x_slave_dlkm])
[    7.138065] wcd937x_codec wcd937x-codec: bound wcd937x-slave.1170223 (ops cleanup_module [wcd937x_slave_dlkm])

I started adding some printk to the kernel driver, and modified it slightly to register itself with the module_driver() macro instead of the simpler, but logless, module_platform_driver(). This showed that the driver was always loaded at about 7 seconds, but the platform_driver_register() method only called the driver's bind method (wcd937x_bind()) in those boots where audio was working.

After more debugging into platform_driver_register(), I stumbled upon the platform_match() function, added some debugging message in there to print the device name and the driver name, and observed how in those boots where audio was failing this function was called to find a driver for the wcd937x_codec device before the wcd937x_codec driver (provided by the wcd937x_dlmk module) was available. So, I tried adding wcd937x_dlmk to /etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf and this caused the driver to be loaded at about 3 seconds, and apparently fixed the audio issue. At least, till the time of writing this, I never had my phone boot without audio anymore.

Not all is fine with the audio, unfortunately: the mic records a background noise along with the actual sounds, and the recording volume is quite low. This also affects the call quality. On the other hand, the noise disappears when recording happens via the earphones. But I've yet to investigate this; I hope to give you some updates in part three.

Ubuntu Touch porting notes for the Redmi Note 7 Pro

In case you have a sense of deja-vu when reading this post, it's because indeed this is not the first time I try porting a device to Ubuntu Touch. The previous attempt, however, was with another phone model (and manufacturer), and did not have a happy ending. This time it went better, although the real ending is still far away; but at least I have something to celebrate.

The phone

I made myself a Christmas present and bought a Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 Pro, a dual-SIM phone from 2019 with 6GB of RAM and 128GB of flash storage. To be totally honest, I bought it by mistake: the phone I really wanted to buy is the Redmi Note 7 (without the "Pro"), because it's a modern phone that is working reasonable well with Ubuntu Touch. The online shop where I bought it from let me choose some options, including the RAM size, so I chose the maximum available (6GB) without being aware that this would mean that I would be buying the "Pro" device — the shop did not alter the item name, so I couldn't really know. Unfortunately, the two versions are two rather different beasts, powered by different SoC; both are produced by Qualcomm, so they are not that different, but it's enough to make the installation of Ubuntu Touch impossible.

But between the choice of retuning the phone to the shop and begin a new porting adventure, I stood firm and went for the latter. Hopefully I won't regret it (if everything goes bad, I can still use it with LineageOS, which runs perfectly on it).

Moreover, there already exist a port of Ubuntu Touch for this phone, which actually works reasonably well (I tried it briefly, and many things were working), but the author claims to be a novice and indeed did not follow the best git practices when working on the source code, so it's hard to understand what was changed and why. But if you are looking for a quick way to get Ubuntu Touch working on this phone, you are welcome to have a look at this Telegram channel.

What follows are the raw notes of my attempts. They are here so that search engines can index the error messages and the various logs, and hopefully help someone hitting similar errors on other devices to find his way out.

Getting Halium and the device source code

Installed the dependencies like in the first step. repo was not found in the Ubuntu 20.04 archives, but I had it installed anyway due to my work on a Yocto device.

Since my device has Android 9 on it, I went for Halium 9:

repo init -u git://github.com/Halium/android.git -b halium-9.0 --depth=1
repo sync -c -j 16

The official LineageOS repository for the Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 Pro is android_device_xiaomi_violet, but the page with the official build has been taken down (some DMCA violation, if you believe the forums) and no development has been happening since last year. A more active forum thread uses another repository which seems to be receiving more frequent updates, so I chose to base my port on that.

I actually tested that LineageOS image on my phone, and verified that all the hardware was working properly.

Initially, I created forks of the relevant repository under my own gitlab account, but then I though (especially looking at the Note 7 port) that creating a group just for this port would make people's life easier, because they wouldn't need to navigate through my 1000 personal projects to find what is relevant for this port. So, I created these forks:

Next, created the halium/devices/manifests/xiaomi_violet.xml file with this content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <!-- Remotes -->
    <remote name="ubuntu-touch-xiaomi-violet"

    <!-- Device Tree -->
    <project path="device/xiaomi/violet"
             remote="ubuntu-touch-xiaomi-violet" />

    <!-- Kernel -->
    <project path="kernel/xiaomi/violet"
             remote="ubuntu-touch-xiaomi-violet" />

    <!-- Proprietary/Vendor blobs -->
    <project path="vendor/xiaomi/violet"
             remote="ubuntu-touch-xiaomi-violet" />

Fetching all the sources mentioned in the manifest:

./halium/devices/setup violet

Full output:

I: Configuring for device xiaomi_violet
Fetching projects: 100% (393/393), done.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/apq8084: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8916: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8952: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8960: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8974: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8994: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8996: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/msm8998: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/sdm845: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio-caf/sm8150: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/audio/default: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_audio found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/apq8084: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8916: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8952: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8960: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8974: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8994: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8996: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/msm8998: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/sdm845: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/display-caf/sm8150: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_display found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/apq8084: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8916: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8952: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8960: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8974: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8994: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8996: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/msm8998: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/sdm845: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/media-caf/sm8150: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_media found, disabling pruning.
hardware/ril: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_ril found, disabling pruning.
hardware/ril-caf: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_ril found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/wlan: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_wlan found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/wlan-caf: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_wlan found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/bt: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_bt found, disabling pruning.
hardware/qcom/bt-caf: Shared project LineageOS/android_hardware_qcom_bt found, disabling pruning.
Updating files: 100% (67031/67031), done.nel/testsUpdating files:  36% (24663/67031)
lineage/scripts/: discarding 1 commits
Updating files: 100% (1406/1406), done.ineageOS/android_vendor_qcom_opensource_thermal-engineUpdating files:  47% (666/1406)
Checking out projects: 100% (392/392), done.
I: Refreshing device vendor repository: device/xiaomi/violet
I: Processing proprietary blob file: device/xiaomi/violet/./proprietary-files.txt
I: Processing fstab file: device/xiaomi/violet/./rootdir/etc/fstab.qcom
I: Removing components relying on SettingsLib from: device/xiaomi/violet

Starting the build

Setting up the environment:

$ source build/envsetup.sh
including device/xiaomi/violet/vendorsetup.sh
including vendor/lineage/vendorsetup.sh

Running the breakfast command:

$ breakfast violet
including vendor/lineage/vendorsetup.sh
Trying dependencies-only mode on a non-existing device tree?

PRODUCT_SOONG_NAMESPACES= hardware/qcom/audio-caf/sm8150 hardware/qcom/display-caf/sm8150 hardware/qcom/media-caf/sm8150

Building the kernel

The configuration needs to be adapted for Halium. Locating the kernel config:

$ grep "TARGET_KERNEL_CONFIG" device/xiaomi/violet/BoardConfig.mk 
TARGET_KERNEL_CONFIG := vendor/violet-perf_defconfig

Getting the Mer checker tool and running it:

git clone https://github.com/mer-hybris/mer-kernel-check
cd mer-kernel-check
./mer_verify_kernel_config ../kernel/xiaomi/violet/arch/arm64/configs/vendor/violet-perf_defconfig

Prints lots of warnings, starting with:

WARNING: kernel version missing, some reports maybe misleading

To help the tool, we need to let him know the kernel version. It can be seen at the beginning of the kernel Makefile, located in ../kernel/xiaomi/violet/Makefile; in my case it was


So I edited the configuration file ../kernel/xiaomi/violet/arch/arm64/configs/vendor/violet-perf_defconfig and added this line at the beginning:

# Version 4.14.83

then ran the checker tool again. This time the output was a long list of kernel options that needed to be fixed, but as I went asking for some explanation in the Telegram channel for Ubuntu Touch porters, I was told that I could/should skip this test and instead use the check-kernel-config tool from Halium. I downloaded it, made it executable (chmod +x check-kernel-config) and ran it:

./check-kernel-config kernel/xiaomi/violet/arch/arm64/configs/vendor/violet-perf_defconfig
[...lots of red and green lines...]
Config file checked, found 288 errors that I did not fix.

I ran it again with the -w option, and it reportedly fixed 287 errors. Weird, does that mean that an error was still left? I ran the tool again (without -w), and it reported 2 errors. Ran it once more in write mode, and if fixed them. So, one might need to run it twice.

Next, added the line

BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE += console=tty0

in device/xiaomi/violet/BoardConfig.mk. One more thing that needs to be done before starting the build is fixing the mount points, so I opened device/xiaomi/violet/rootdir/etc/fstab.qcom and changed the type of the userdata partition from f2fs to ext4. There were no lines with the context option, so that was the only change I needed to do.

At this point, while browsing throught the documentation, I found a link to this page which contains some notes on Halium 9 porting, which are substantially different from the official porting guide in halium.org (which I was already told in Telegram to be obsolete in several points).

So, following the instructions from this new link I ran

hybris-patches/apply-patches.sh --mb

which completed successfully.

Then, continuing following the points from this page, I edited device/xiaomi/violet/lineage_violet.mk, commented out the lines

$(call inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/full_base_telephony.mk)
# ...
$(call inherit-product, vendor/lineage/config/common_full_phone.mk)

and replaced the first one with a similar line pointing to halium.mk. For the record, a find revealed that the SRC_TARGET_DIR variable in my case was build/make/target/. It contained also the halium.mk file, which was created by the hybris patches before. As for removing the Java dependencies, I cound't find any modules similar to those listed in this commit in any of the makefiles in my source tree, so I just started the build:

source build/envsetup.sh && breakfast violet
make halium-boot

This failed the first time with the compiler being killed (out of memory, most likely), but it succeeded on the second run. There was a suspicious warning, though:

drivers/input/touchscreen/Kconfig:1290:warning: multi-line strings not supported

And indeed my kernel/xiaomi/violet/drivers/input/touchscreen/Kconfig had this line:

source "drivers/input/touchscreen/ft8719_touch_f7b/Kconfig

(notice the unterminated string quote). I don't know if this had any impact on the build, but just to be on the safe side I added the missing quote and rebuilt.

Building the system image


make systemimage

failed pretty soon:

ninja: error: '/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/soong/host/linux-x86/framework/turbine.jar', needed by '/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/soong/.intermediates/libcore/core-oj/android_common/turbine/core-oj.jar', missing and no known rule to make it

The error is due to all the Java-related stuff that I should have disabled but couldn't find. So, I tried to have a look at the changes made on another xiaomi device (lavender, the Redmi note 7, which might not be that different, I thought) and started editing device/xiaomi/violet/device.mk and removing a couple of Android packages. Eventually the build proceeded, just to stop at a python error:

  File "build/make/tools/check_radio_versions.py", line 56
    print "*** Error opening \"%s.sha1\"; can't verify %s" % (fn, key)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax

Yes, it's the python3 vs python2 issue, since in my system python is python version 3. In order to fix it, I created a virtual environment:

virtualenv --python 2.7 ../python27  # adjust the path to your prefs
source ../python27/bin/activate

Remember that the second line must be run every time you'll need to setup the Halium build environment (that is, every time you run breakfast).

The build then proceeded for several minutes, until it failed due to some unresolved symbols:

prebuilts/gcc/linux-x86/aarch64/aarch64-linux-android-4.9/aarch64-linux-android/bin/ld.gold: error: /home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/target/product/violet/obj/STATIC_LIBRARIES/lib_driver_cmd_qcwcn_intermediates/lib_driver_cmd_qcwcn.a: member at 7694 is not an ELF object
external/wpa_supplicant_8/hostapd/src/drivers/driver_nl80211.c:7936: error: undefined reference to 'wpa_driver_set_p2p_ps'
/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/target/product/violet/obj/EXECUTABLES/hostapd_intermediates/src/drivers/driver_nl80211.o:driver_nl80211.c:wpa_driver_nl80211_ops: error: undefined reference to 'wpa_driver_set_ap_wps_p2p_ie'
/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/target/product/violet/obj/EXECUTABLES/hostapd_intermediates/src/drivers/driver_nl80211.o:driver_nl80211.c:wpa_driver_nl80211_ops: error: undefined reference to 'wpa_driver_get_p2p_noa'
/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/target/product/violet/obj/EXECUTABLES/hostapd_intermediates/src/drivers/driver_nl80211.o:driver_nl80211.c:wpa_driver_nl80211_ops: error: undefined reference to 'wpa_driver_set_p2p_noa'
/home/mardy/projects/port/halium/out/target/product/violet/obj/EXECUTABLES/hostapd_intermediates/src/drivers/driver_nl80211.o:driver_nl80211.c:wpa_driver_nl80211_ops: error: undefined reference to 'wpa_driver_nl80211_driver_cmd'

As people told me in the Telegram channel, this driver is not used since "our wpa_supplicant talks to kernel directly". OK, so I simply disabled the driver, copying again from the lavender Halium changes: commented out the BOARD_WLAN_DEVICE := qcwcn line (and all lines referring this variable) from device/xiaomi/violet/BoardConfig.mk and ran make systemimage again. This time, surprisingly, it all worked.

Try it out

I first tried to flash the kernel only. I rebooted into fastboot, and on my PC ran this:

fastboot flash boot halium-boot.img

I then rebooted my phone, but after showing the boot logo for a few seconds it would jump to the fastboot screen. Indeed, flashing the previous kernel would restore the normal boot, so there had to be something wrong with my own kernel.

While looking at what the problem could be, I noticed that in the lavender port the author did not modify the lineageos kernel config file in place, but instead created a new one and changed the BoardConfig.mk file to point to his new copy. Since it sounded like a good idea, I did the same and created kernel/xiaomi/violet/arch/arm64/configs/vendor/violet_halium_defconfig for the Halium changes. And then the line in the board config file became

TARGET_KERNEL_CONFIG := vendor/violet_halium_defconfig

I then continued investigating the boot issue, and I was told that it might have been due to an Android option, skip_initramfs, which is set by the bootloader and causes our Halium boot to fail. The fix is to just disable this option in the kernel, by editing init/initramfs.c and change the skip_initramfs_param function to always set the do_skip_initramfs variable to 0, rather than to 1. After doing this, the boot proceeded to show the Ubuntu splash screen with the five dots being lit, but it didn't proceed from there.

Setting up the udev rules

Even in this state, the device was detected by my host PC and these lines appeared in the system log:

kernel: usb 1-3: new high-speed USB device number 26 using xhci_hcd
kernel: usb 1-3: New USB device found, idVendor=0fce, idProduct=7169, bcdDevice= 4.14
kernel: usb 1-3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
kernel: usb 1-3: Product: Unknown
kernel: usb 1-3: Manufacturer: GNU/Linux Device
kernel: usb 1-3: SerialNumber: GNU/Linux Device on usb0

Indeed, I guess the reason I could do this without even flashing my systemimage is because I had first flashed another UT system image from another porter. I'm not sure if I'd had the same results with my own image. Anyway, the USB networking was there, so I connected and ran the following commands to generate the udev rules:

ssh phablet@
# used 0000 as password
sudo -i
# same password again
cd /home/phablet
cat /var/lib/lxc/android/rootfs/ueventd*.rc /vendor/ueventd*.rc \
        | grep ^/dev \
        | sed -e 's/^\/dev\///' \
        | awk '{printf "ACTION==\"add\", KERNEL==\"%s\", OWNER=\"%s\", GROUP=\"%s\", MODE=\"%s\"\n",$1,$3,$4,$2}' \
        | sed -e 's/\r//' \

I then copied (with scp) this file to my host PC, and I moved it to device/xiaomi/violet/ubuntu/70-violet.rules (I had to create the ubuntu directory first). Then I edited the device/xiaomi/violet/device.mk file and added these lines at the end:

### Ubuntu Touch ###
### End Ubuntu Touch ###

It was now time to try my own system image. I rebooted my device into TWRP, I cloned the halium-install repository into my halium build dir, downloaded a rootfs for Halium9, and ran

./halium-install/halium-install -p ut \
    ~/Downloads/ubuntu-touch-android9-arm64.tar.gz \

The first time this failed because the simg2img tool was not installed. The second time it proceeded to create the image, asked me for a password for the phablet user (gave "0000") and pushed the image onto the device, into the /data/ partition. I then rebooted.

My first Ubuntu Touch image

Upon reboot, the usual splash screen appeared, followed by several seconds of black screen. It definitely didn't look right, but at least it proved that something had been flashed. After some more seconds, to my big surprise, the Ubuntu boot screen appeared, just with a smaller logo than how it used to be before, which also confimed that my system image was being used — in fact, I did not adjust the GRID_UNIT_PX variable before. Since this was an easy fix, I chose to focus on that, rather than fix the boot issues (indeed, my device did not move on from the Ubuntu boot screen). SSH was working.

I took the scaling.conf file from the lavender changes, put it in device/xiaomi/violet/ubuntu/ and added this line in the PRODUCT_COPY_FILES in device.mk:


I initially used system/ubuntu/etc/... as the target destination for the config file, like in the lavender commit, but this didn't work out for me. Then I changed the path to start with system/halium/, like it's mentioned in the ubports documentation, but it apparently had no effect either.

After a couple of days spent trying to understand why my files were not appearing under /etc, it turned out that the device was not using my system image at all: with halium-install I had my image installed in /userdata/system.img, while the correct path for Halium 9 devices is /userdata/android-rootfs.img. I was told that the option -s of halium-install would do the trick. Instead of re-running the script, I took the shortcut of renaming /userdata/system.img to /userdata/android-rootfs.img and after rebooting I could see that the Ubuntu logo was displayed at the correct size. And indeed my system image was being used.

So I started to debug why unity8 didn't start. The logs terminated with this line:

terminate called after throwing an instance of 'std::runtime_error'
  what():  org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NoReply: Message recipient disconnected from message bus without replying
initctl: Event failed

It means, that unity8 did not handle correctly the situation where another D-Bus service crashed while handing a call from unity8. The problem now was how to figure out which service it was. I ran dbus-monitor and restarted unity8 (initctl start unity8), then examined the dbus logs; I saw the point where unity8 got disconnected from the bus, but before that point I didn't find any failed D-Bus calls. So it had to be the system bus. I did exactly the same steps, just this time after running dbus-monitor --system as root, I found the place where unity8 got disconnected, and found this D-bus error shortly before that:

method call time=1605676421.968667 sender=:1.306 -> destination=com.ubuntu.biometryd.Service serial=3 path=/default_device; interface=com.ubuntu.biometryd.Device; member=Identifier
method return time=1605676421.970222 sender=:1.283 -> destination=:1.306 serial=4 reply_serial=3
   object path "/default_device/identifier"
method call time=1605676421.974218 sender=:1.283 -> destination=org.freedesktop.DBus serial=6 path=/org/freedesktop/DBus; interface=org.freedesktop.DBus; member=GetConnectionAppArmorSecurityContext
   string ":1.306"
error time=1605676421.974278 sender=org.freedesktop.DBus -> destination=:1.283 error_name=org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.AppArmorSecurityContextUnknown reply_serial=6
   string "Could not determine security context for ':1.306'"
signal time=1605676421.989074 sender=org.freedesktop.DBus -> destination=:1.283 serial=6 path=/org/freedesktop/DBus; interface=org.freedesktop.DBus; member=NameLost
   string "com.ubuntu.biometryd.Service"
error time=1605676421.989302 sender=org.freedesktop.DBus -> destination=:1.306 error_name=org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NoReply reply_serial=4
   string "Message recipient disconnected from message bus without replying"

So, it looks like unity8 (:1.306) made a request to biometryd, who asked the D-Bus daemon what was the AppArmor label of the caller, but since I didn't backport the D-Bus mediation patches for AppArmor, the label could not be resolved. biometryd decided to crash instead of properly handling the error, and so did unity8.

So I backported the AppArmor patches. I took them from the Canonical kernel repo, but they did not apply cleanly because they are meant to be applied on top of a pristine 4.14 branch, whereas the Android kernel had already some AppArmor security fixes backported from later releases. So I set and quickly inspected the contents of each patch, and found out that a couple of them had already been applied, and the last patch had to be applied as the first (yeah, it's hard to explain, but it all depends on other patches that Android has backported from newer kernels). Anyway, after rebuilding the kernel and reflashing it, my phone could finally boot to unity8!

Conclusion (of the first episode)

The actual porting, as I've been told, starts here. What has been documented here are only the very first steps of the bring-up; what awaits me now is to make all the hardware subsystems work properly, and this, according to people more experienced in porting, is the harder part.

So far, very few things work, to the point that it's faster to me to list the things that do work; it's safe to assume that all what is not listed here is not working:

  • Mir, with graphics and input: Unity8 starts and is usable
  • Camera: can take photos; video recording start but an error appears when the stop button is pressed
  • Flashlight
  • Fingerprint reader: surprisingly, this worked out of the box
  • Screen brightness (though it can be changed only manually)

For all the rest, please keep an eye on this blog: I'll write, when I make some progress!

Announcing CuteVNC

Having a single screen connected to my PC, I was wondering if I could use my nice BQ M10 tablet running UBports as an additional screen. The idea was that if I could convince the X server to create a new virtual display, and then run the x11vnc server on it, I could then connect the tablet to it and enjoy my desktop on two screens. Yes, the M10 has not such a big display, but it couls still be useful to host a window with a mail or a chat client, so that I would not need to switch between applications just to check if new emails or chat messages have arrived (and I hate instant notifications, so I tend to disable them in every program that allows me to).

Anyway, I digress. I found some articles, and specifically this question, that show how one can add a new virtual screen and connect to it via VNC. I tried it and it kind of worked, but there were some visual artifacts that annoyed me (most likely due to the AMDGPU drivers), so I'll defer the creation of a demo video till when I'll have figured out a better setup. But the main point is that the idea, in principle, can work.


So I sat down and started writing a VNC client for UBports, since it appears that there wasn't one yet in the store. I use the past tense, because after a week or so of work, CuteVNC is there. It's still a very alpha version, and does seem to get confused if the VNC server is using caching, but overall it's working. Its impressive feature list includes:

  • Can connect to a VNC server, and show the remote display
  • Can send mouse events
  • Windowed and fullscreen mode
  • Pinch to zoom

There's a lot more that could be done, but for a first release this can be OK.

Development of a UBports Qt/QML app with QBS

If, like me, you are a fan of QBS, you might want to have a look at the source code of CuteVNC (yes, the project was born as "Lomiri VNC", but since it's a generic QtQuick.Controls 2 application, there was no need to tie it to the Lomiri environment); there you can find a QBS module for UBports applications, which can help in filling in the manifest file and deploying other Ubuntu Touch specific files into their proper install location.

You can also see the configuration file to make clickable build a QBS-based project. In my mental task backlog I still have the idea of making clickable support QBS out of the box, but the integration of the two technologies is so easy even now, that I gave this task a quite low priority.

A class for computing viewport transformations

Last but not least, a developer might find useful the generic Scaler class I wrote to compute the viewport transformations: it's a simple, QtGui-only C++ class which takes an input structure with the viewport information, and returns a similar structure containing a QTransform matrix to map item coordinates to coordinates in the source object coordinates (in my case, the source object is the remote screen served by VNC) and some other useful parameters, such as the scale, center offset, and the painted area rectangle.

The class has a 100% line and branch coverage in the unit tests, so I hope I can rely on it.

Quando le scientia manca de argumentos

E ben, io lo confessa: io es un de ille negationistas qui non crede in le scientia. Al minus, si on associa le parola “scientia” con le Organisation Mundial del Sanitate (OMS, o WHO in anglese).

Jam desde plure annos io ha perdite le fide in iste organisation, ma un nova que io legeva recentemente me ha stimulate a declarar publicamente mi adversion pro le OMS: in iste articulo, le capite del OMS declarava que le idea de attinger le immunitate de grege per relaxar le limitationes al diffusion del virus COVID-19 non es ethic.

Le referimento al ethica me surprendeva. Io non poteva recordar, que io unquam audiva le OMS parlar de ethica, ante iste momento. An le OSM non es un organisation scientific? Si illo lo es, le evocation del ethica como justification de un argumentation sembla demonstrar que il non ha factos scientific pro supportar le these.

Ma anque si nos concede que le personal del OMS pote — a titulo purmente personal — facer considerationes de charactere ethic, como pote nos conciliar iste declaration de Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus con le silentio super un quantitate de practicas e experimentos scientific, que multe personas considera esser contrari al ethica? Esque experimentar le vaccinos super populationes del tertie mundo es ethic? O experimentar los super le stratos plus indigente del population (voluntarimente, on dice, ma on les compensa con alicun beneficios) es ethic? Reciper enorme contributiones financiari del companias que developpa medicinas e vaccinos, e pronunciar se super themas medic e virologic, es isto ethic?

Contra potentes nemo est munitus satis;
si vero accessit consiliator maleficus,
vis et nequitia quicquid oppugnant, ruit.

(Fedro, libro secunde, capitulo sexte)